Special Issue - 2015 , IJPSR

Publication of Conference Proceedings
International conference on "Counseling and Psychotherapy, Diversity in Training &Practice (May 1st &2nd, 2015)
Organized by
Smpurna Montford College
Indira Nagar, Bengaluru-560038


Dhaneshwari 1 & Swathi B 2


The present paper focuses to highlight the role of multi model approach of counseling as a tool to help people to overcome various psychological and social problems. The presenter has picked up 5 cases counseled by her at Nature Cure Hospital, Dharmasthala. NCH Dharmasthala is a naturopathy hospital that helps human body to provide cure for its own ailments through various drugless therapies and life style modification processes. It is said that most of the physical ailments are associated mostly with various environmental, psychological and social stressors. Psycho social counseling aids people in need of life style modification to stabilize their mental status to adapt themselves to the present by altering negative aspects to new adaptive approaches through multi model approach of counseling. The paper attempts to bring out the effect of various strategies adapted by the counselor to help individual to change their selves for better adaptability for the treatment. Psycho Social counseling is a need of the day at the Hospital because it is noticed that problems faced by clients are the result of disorientation of effective life style management.

Key Words: Life Style Modification, Multi Model Approach, Counselling, Nature Cure Hospital

1Assistant Professor/Counsellor, Dept. Of P G Studies And Research In Social Work,S D M College,Ujire.dhanumstk@gmail.com
2Assistant Professor, Dept Of P G Studies and Research In Social Work, S D M College,Ujire,Swathigprakash88@gmail.com


Visalakshi Sridhar1 & Suryarekha S.V2


It appears from the latest epidemiological data that social anxiety disorder is the most common of  the anxiety disorders. There is some evidence that social anxiety disorder is increasing in the younger generation and that it typically begins during adolescent or early adulthood. Fear of performance situations or audience anxiety, which is an aspect of social anxiety, seems to be a common phenomenon. This study sought to test the effectiveness of Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) for audience anxiety. EFT is a technique that involves exposure,  use of affirmations  and tapping of meridian points.  The study adopts  a  one group pre and post test design and makes a comparison between pre and post test measures; pretest and   a one month follow up measures; and post test and one month follow up measures. The participants were 60 students doing their Masters programs in Psychology or Psychological Counseling from a college in the city of Bangalore, who identified themselves as suffering from fear of performance or audience anxiety. They were divided into two groups and underwent an experiential workshop for ninety minutes, where they were taught EFT for audience anxiety. They were assessed on Audience Anxiety Scale (AAS) at pre and one month follow up; and Social Cognitions Questionnaire (SCQ) at pre, post and one month follow up of the intervention. Results revealed that there was significant difference in AAS between pre and one month follow up at .01 level. For SCQ the results revealed significant difference between pre and post, pre and one month follow up at .01 level and there was no significant difference between post and follow up data at .01 level, indicating that the effects were maintained at one month follow up. Thus, EFT seems to be a promising intervention for audience anxiety and demands attention due to its effectiveness within a short duration of the intervention. The simplicity of the protocol makes it a viable self-help tool.

Key Words: Social Anxiety Disorder, Performance Anxiety, Audience Anxiety, EFT

1Assistant Professor, Sampurna Montfort College, Bangalore. visal.sr@gmail.com
2Vice Principal, Sampurna Montfort College, Bangalore. Email: sura51ster@gmail.com.


Faiza Begum


The study was conducted to determine the effect of arousal on attention before and after the intake of the stimulates -caffeine and nicotine, it was tested by measuring the subjects blood pressure and giving them free recall test before and after the intake of stimulants .The study was conducted on a sample of 60 where in 30 where for nicotine and 30 for caffeine, the subjects blood pressure was checked using Sphygmomanometer. The data was subject to Parametric statistics. The ANOVAs test was computed to compare the blood pressure and free recall of the subjects before and after the intake of the stimulants. The results show that there is a significant difference of arousal on attention before and after the intake of the stimulants as checked by the free recall test. The study also shows that there has been no difference or a decrease in the blood pressure rates for before and after the intake of stimulants as measured by Sphygmo- manometer. Therefore the scores accepts the second and third hypothesis which states that there will be an increase in the recall after the intake of stimulants , the scores rejects the first and second hypothesis which states that there wil be a increased level of blood pressure after the intake of the stimulants. Arousal begins within the mind, and then seeps out where fantasy propels physicality."- Kristie LeVangie

Key Words: Arousal, Attention, intake of stimulants

1MSC Student, Montfort College, Bangalore


Sowmya S1 & Vithya V 2


In India, spirituality is considered second nature to most of the people. But in recent years, the degree of association with spirituality and religion in the younger generation seems to be on the declining trend. The young generation of today appears to be more interested in material and concrete things than abstract concepts like spirituality, searching for meaning in life etc. On the other side, the number of people with psychological problems in the society is in the increasing trend. There is also an increase in psychologi- cal disorders, family disputes, suicidal rates, divorces, juvenile delinquencies, old age homes etc. in the present day. These seem to suggest that the younger generation of today is finding it difficult to cope up with stress and traumatic situations in life. The current study aims to bring out the relationship, if any, between a person's spirituality and his ability to bounce back to normalcy from crisis. The sample consists of two groups - young adults consisting of people below the age of 30 and older adults consisting of people above the age of 45. The variables spirituality and resilience were measured using standardized questionnaires namely The Spirituality Scale by Swaminathan and Bindhu (2006) and Bharathiar University Resilience Scale (Form A) by Annalakshmi (2009). Survey research design was used for the present study. Convenience sampling was used to collect data. The sample comprised of 62 young adults and 30 older adults. The data collected was analyzed using Pearson product moment correlation and test for significance of difference. The results revealed a positive relationship between spirituality and resilience. Further, older adults were found to be more resilient and spiritual than the younger adults.

Key Words: Spirituality, resilience, young and old adults

1Assistant Professor, Shasun Jain College for Women, Chennai, India
2Assistant Professor, Shasun Jain College for Women, Chennai, India


Shiddappa Madar1 & Mohan A.K2


India stands third highest HIV burden in the world. The number of children who are infected with HIV around the world has increased from 1.6 million in 2001 to 2.0 million in 2007. Of the Children Living with HIV (CLHIVs), 90 percent have been infected through mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy/ child birth or through breast-feeding. National AIDS control organization (NACO) took initiation to imple- ment Prevention of Parent-to-Child Transmission (PPTCT) services to prevent number of newly infection from parent to child. India has an estimated 115,000 CLHIVs. As of December 2011, 22,585 children under 15 years are provided with free ART under National AIDS Control Programme. The treatment controls physical ailment but psychological acceptance towards the infection is difficult for the children living with HIV/AIDS. Hence counseling plays very important role in making the children to accept the infection to some extent and live with it. A counselor can comfort the infected persons by making them to understand the situation through counseling. The present study tries to understand the issues/concerned related towards pediatric counseling in the district of Belagavi, which is one of the highest CLHIVs, were enrolled for the treatment in the district. The study is Descriptive in nature, focuses on the perception on the pediatric counseling among counselors. In this regard questionnaires were administered to the counselors to under- stand the issues in pediatric counselling. The result revealed that training, refresher course and various other skills are required by the counselors has to be considered by the concerned department has to take initiative to impart the same to the counselors to make them more active, knowledgeable about pediatric counseling to make it more effective.

Key Words: CLHIVs, Paediatric, Counselling, Hospital, Treatment.

1UGC-JRF, Research Scholar, Department of Studies in Social Work, University of Mysore, Manasagangothri, Mysore; 2Assistant Professor, Department of Studies in Social Work, University of Mysore, Manasagangothri, Mysore, email:siddu2g@gmail.com.


Synthia Mary Mathew1 and Alice Eliza Sherina, C. 2


Key Words:

1Associate Professor, Department of Social Sciences, & Convenor, Counselling Unit, Lady Doak College, Madurai, Tamilnadu, INDIA
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Social Sciences , & Member, Counselling Unit, Lady Doak College, Madurai, Tamilnadu, INDIA.


Jaishri Iyer


Death is a universal phenomenon and the grief that is experienced is the profound, painful, personal, internal and subjective response to loss / bereavement. Death of a loved one constitutes a major life-cycle event and can be complicated, complex and multidimensional, as encountered frequently by therapists. Conjugal Bereavement is a major transition in life and is both a crisis and a challenge. The article focuses on the challenges that young women face in an uncharted journey following conjugal bereavement. The issues of Loss, Grief, Loneliness, Readjustment and Re-organization are often dealt with by counsellors and thera- pists. As many as 144 women were interviewed and 12 of them volunteered and participated in the counsel- ling program. The focus of intervention based on Stages of Change Model (SOC) through the "Grief Healing, Integration and Adaptation Program" on their Quality of Life and its varied dimensions are reviewed. Case studies illustrating the application of this model are presented.

Key Words: Conjugal Bereavement, Grief, Quality of life, Stages of Change model

Consultant Counsellor, Srishti Institute of Art,Design and Technology, Yelahanka,Bengaluru


Juanita J


The Mind is the meeting point of the psychological and the spiritual being of an individual. Psychol- ogy, 'the Science of the Mind' concentrates on thoughts, feelings and will of an individual and Spirituality 'the essence of being' gives a true meaning and purpose of life. Counseling aims at caring and curing the mind. 'Care' refers to actions that are designed to support a person's well-being while 'cure' refers to actions that are designed to restore the well-being that is lost. This paper aims at a qualitative assessment of these two crucial needs of counseling (care and cure of MIND) being met only by integrating the spirit with the mind. Healing can be achieved by meaningfully combining the psychological and spiritual approaches to counsel- ing. The paper describes the subjective dimensions of a lay counselor who experienced healing and comfort to her own distresses and disturbances by the power, grace and strength of God along-with self-insights gained through therapeutic counseling and training. The psychological healing experienced, paves the way for a deeper spiritual awakening to care for individuals who are disturbed in the mind and distressed in the spirit. The experience in personal healing and aiding in the healing of others convinces the counselor of the need to integrate psychological perspectives, psycho-therapeutic approaches and spiritual insights. The paper shares a few success stories of counseling where such integration was applied.

Key Words: Transpersonal Psychology, Integration, Logo Therapy, Larry - Crabb Model, Transcendence

Part-time Counselor, Counselling Unit, Lady Doak College, Madurai, TamilNadu, India. E mail: tewhope@gmail.com


Baijesh A.R


Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia, is an extreme fear of embarrassment or humiliation in social or performance situations and is usually characterized by avoidance of these situations.The fear often is associated with marked distress and impairment in several areas, including work, social life, and family life. Although traditional CBTs for SAD have been shown to be efficacious, most individuals continue to demonstrate residual symptoms and impairment after treatment, and a significant percentage do not respond to treatment at all. Therefore, new or modified treatments may prove useful to enhance the effects of existing treatments and further improve functioning and quality of life in broader domains. The present study was aimed at examining the efficacy Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) treatment pro- gram for SAD. Thirty adolescencts aged between 14 and 17 years, both males and females, were recruited through Hyderabad-based hospital out patient department, who met ICD-10 criteria for social phobia (gen- eralized), on the basis of a standard structured clinical interview. Pre and post assessments were carried out using Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM- A), Leibowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents (LSAS- CA) which has two subscales, fear and avoidance, and General Self Efficacy Scale (GSE). The participants underwent 12 sessions of individualized MBCT program spread over three months. Participants found the treatment to be highly acceptable, and they also reported decreases in avoidance compared to fear in social situations. Results showed significant improvement from pre-treatment to post- treatment on self-report measures of social anxiety symptoms (fear- t=19.6, p< 0.01; avoidance- t=31.94, p< 0.01), self efficacy (t=13.72, p< 0.01), and clinician rating of anxiety (t= 13.68, p< 0.01) among participants. Post intervention, an independent clinical interview by a clinical psychologist revealed clinically significant Social Anxiety present among only 12 participants. Results suggest the acceptability and potential efficacy of MBCT for SAD. The present study highlight the need for future research examining both the efficacy and mechanisms of change of MBCT programs for SAD and scope for integrating components of MBCT in traditional CBT for SAD.

Key Words: Mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT); Social anxiety disorder; social phobia; mindful- ness; adolescents.



Watinaro Longkumer1 & Jayashankar Reddy2


Individuals often compare themselves with others (i.e, Social comparison) and evaluate themselves to know their potential and status (Festinger 1954). Social comparison is an important factor which provides a means of gathering information about the social world and can impact adolescent self-concept in important domains of their life. Numerous western studies have explained about social comparison on some relevant domains such as, academic performance, physical appearance, self image etc in adolescent population. But the topic on social comparison among adolescents is very rarely discussed in Indian research. This research aims to address the gap in research by exploring the phenomenology of adolescents' (age 13-17 years) experience in the process of social comparison and its impact on their self concept which is very relevant in Indian context. India being a collectivist and diverse culture, the concept of self is very different from western understanding of self. Systematic review of existing research, theory and empirical study using thematic analysis, this article identifies the important domains of social comparison and explored its impact on adolescents' self concept. The data are drawn from 15 adolescence age between 13-17 years, and 4 school counsellors.

Key Words: Social Comparison, Thematic analysis, Qualitative study

1 PhD scholar, Christ University, Bengaluru; 2Associate Professor,Christ University, Bengaluru


Neeta Mehta1 & Jennie Mendes2


Communication is more about what lies between the lines than within the lines uttered. Messages are all the time decoded on the basis of tone of voice, body language, contradictions and variety of emotional overtones that they carry. All faulty communication has its roots in assumptions. The filters that are worn while one talks, however, negotiate our relationships in an adverse manner. This paper investigates parental messages and attempts to classify them into categories based on the construct of Expressed Emotion (EE). EE is one of the significant determinants of family environment as well as heavily investigated contributor to the relapse in psychological disorders (Amaresha & Venkatasubramanian, 2012). It comprises of hostility, emotional over-involvement and critical attitude. Past research shows that ambiguous mixed message cre- ates distortions and misinterprets motives. 75 different parental statements were categorized using the EE construct. They were then analyzed to understand their role in determining quality of home environment and parent-child relationship. The paper assessed significance of including communication skills in the module of teaching parenting skills. The steps involved in training parents to improve their communication and the necessary non-pathological communication skills were delineated.

Key Words: Communication, Expressed Emotion (EE)

1 Associate professor in Psychology, KET's V. G. Vaze College, Mululnd, Mumbai; 2Associate professor in Psychology, Sophia College, Mumbai


Rhea D'souza


Well-being is a dynamic concept that includes subjective, social, and psychological dimensions as well as health-related behaviors. The study explores the relationship between mental health and General Well- Being (GWB) of the college students between the ages of 18 to 22. The sample comprised of 30 (15 unaware of positive mental health and another 15 who are aware) students. Need for positive thinking is assessed using the PGI GWB Scale (Verma & Verma, 1989). For the present sample, no significant difference has been found between the two groups. Results indicated that, students who were influenced by positive thinking scored marginally higher in the General Well-Being (GWB) scale. Thus the findings of the study show that training in positive thinking marginally enhances general wellbeing.

Key Words: Positive thinking, well-Being, College students

Student, M.Sc Psychology, Montfort College, Bangalore


Mathrani. T


The World Health Organization (WHO) in its report published in 2012, stated that India has the highest number of suicides worldwide. According to its report every 40 seconds 1 person commits suicide, which amount to 15 suicides per hour and 371 suicides daily. A study based on the World Health Organization's World Mental Health Survey Initiative has said that India has the highest rate of major depression in the world. Aim: The aim of the present study is to understand Depression & Suicidal Ideations between those who have had Childhood Traumatic Experiences and those who have not. Childhood Traumatic Experiences has been defined as experiencing Childhood Abuse (Physical/Verbal/Sexual), Neglect and Unforeseen events such as accidents, deaths, shooting or stabbing prior to the age of 13 years. Methodology: The present study is ongoing, and aims to explore Female participants (n=100) aged 18-25 years on Depression & Suicidal Ideations between those who have experienced childhood trauma (s) and those who have not. Measures: Childhood Traumatic Experiences were explored using 12 Yes/No questions. Depression was measured using the 21-item Beck's Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and Suicidal Ideations were measured using 19 item Scale for Suicidal Ideation (SSI).

Key Words: Childhood Trauma, Depression, Suicidal Ideations/Wishes

Student, Monfort College, Bangalore.


Avani Vasani1, Madumitha R.,2 Sarah Varghese3


The aim of the present survey research is to study the effect of having pet animals on Self-esteem of young adults. Self-esteem refers to an individual's sense of his or her value or worth, or the extent to which a person values, approves of, appreciates, prizes, or likes him or herself (Blascovich & Tomaka, 1991). A young adult, according to Erik Erikson's stages of human development, is a person in the age range of 20-40 years. The sampling design used for the study was random sampling. The sample consisted of 88 literate young adults, where 44 of them owned pets for more than a year and 44 of them did not own any pet animals. The tool which was used for assessing the self-esteem of the samples was the Rosenberg Self- esteem Scale. The statistical analysis used was Mann-Whitney U Test. The study found that people who own pets for more than a year have higher self-esteem than people who do not own pets. The findings can help counsellors decide on using pet animals for working with young adults with low self-esteem, depres- sion, eating disorders, etc. The gender differences in the effect of having pets on self-esteem of young adults can be studied in future.

Key Words: Self esteem, Pet Animals, Young adults.

Students1, 2, 3 Montfort College, Bangalore


Susha Janardanan1 & Preetha Rajan2


India in the new millennium is in a state of flux, economically, politically, culturally and socially, with a simultaneous decline in traditional support systems such as extended families and close-knit communities. The result is a desperate and urgent need for counselling services, and a dearth of well trained and equipped counselling professionals to face this deluge. Currently counselling services in India are poorly defined in terms of area, rigour and duration of counsellor training, different specializations, and parameters for super- vision, monitoring, evaluation, research and professional development. Thus anyone with little or no training can be a counsellor. While lay counsellors help to fill the gap in availability and accessibility of services, distinctions need to be made and standards need to be set to ensure counsellor competence, ethical practice and maintain the credibility of the profession. India currently lacks a regulatory framework that sets profes- sional standards for counselling practice. A credentialing process for Indian counsellors would set standards for academic preparation and professional practice. It would also promote national and international recog- nition, and recognition by other mental health professionals. Furthermore, it would encourage professional accountability, visibility, and advocacy for the counselling profession. Credentialing involves three major professional activities that set standards for professional training and regulations for practice: academic program accreditation, certification, and licensure. Using the U.S. credentialing process as a guideline, this paper outlines a framework for bringing a credentialing process to the counselling profession in India, by using and building on existing recommendations and institutional assets, while proposing the need for a professional body such as a counselling association at the national level.

Key Words: Counselling, Professionals, Credibility

1 Head of the Department of Counselling Psychology, Loyola College of Social Sciences, Trivandrum ;
2Consultant, SPACE (Society for Promotion of Alternative Computing and Employment), Trivandrum


Siddhika L


Adolescence is a very crucial developmental and transitional stage in an individual's life. The study attempted to find a relationship between sex education and the formation of sexual attitudes. Currently in India, there is a dearth of studies on the importance of sex education. It is completely ignored in schools, because even today "sex" is considered a taboo word and parents, teachers, or other caregivers are not comfortable talking about sex with the budding young adults. Hence their curiosity and questions remain unanswered, which forces them to seek answers from unreliable sources. Most of the times the information acquired by the adolescents is misleading and steers them to form faulty attitudes, which would affect the healthy development of their personality. A purposive sampling technique was used to gather data on the sexual attitudes of adolescents between the age group 18years -20 years, by administering sexual attitudes questionnaire on them. The questionnaire measured their attitudes towards 5 aspects, namely- premarital sex, polygamy, lesbianism, pornography and homosexuality. The results gathered through the data collection indicate that there exists a significant difference in the sexual attitudes of the adolescents who received sex education in school and those who did not. Adolescents in India today are experiencing a lot of heinous crimes, such as molestation, abuse and rape. Unfortunately lack of awareness, has made them ignorant and incapable of fighting back, in case of any violations committed. This is a matter of serious concern, because the crime rates have increased and it is our duty to guide and empower the budding adults to protect themselves. The topic of 'Sex', if not addressed at a young age, might pave way for the adolescents to commit grave mistakes that might have a negative impact on them lifelong. Many adolescents due to the lack of sex education might be ashamed of their sexual orientation which might not be accepted by their society such as homosexuality or asexuality and due to the persistent internal conflict they may undergo depression, anxiety and may take extreme steps such as self harm or suicide. Sex education offers an overall healthy growth of the adolescent. In India proper sex education is not being provided in most of the schools even though it is compulsory, because the teachers and parents are not ready to approach such a sensitive topic and impart knowledge to children. This study emphasizes the need for introducing effective sex education in schools to young adolescents in order to make them more responsible and aware.

Key Words: Adolescence, Sex Education, Sexual Attitudes, Awareness, Healthy Development

Student, MSc Counselling Psychology,Christ University, Bangalore


Paul Raj1 & Dr. Sudhamayi2


Study skills are certain tactics of learning which makes learning easier, more interesting and provide better retention of learned material. Study skills can be defined as the effective use of appropriate techniques for completing a learning task. The present research was conducted to assess the level of study skills among high school boys and girls and to offer study skills training to improve the study skills level of weak students. The research followed convenient sampling with the sample size of 250 (125 boys and 125 girls) students at Tirupattur, North Arcot district of Tamil Nadu. The Study Skills Questionnaire by M. Kanchana (1986) was administered to the participants in a group setting. 50 boys who scored below the average score were selected for experimental (25) and control (25) groups. The experimental group underwent an eight, one hour sessions of study skills training. The post test scores were acquired and the data was subjected to proper statistical procedures. The results indicated that study skills training improved the study skills level of weak students and also showed that there is no significant difference in study skills between boys and girls.

Key Words: Study skills, Training on study skills, Adolescents

1 Paul Raj, student, II MSC Counselling Psychology, MLCU, Montfort College, Bangalore;
2Dr. Sudhamayi, Assistant Professor, Montfort College, Bangalore.


Priyanka1 & Anita Mary. A2


Decades of research has established that "online" cognitive processes, which operate during con- scious encoding and retrieval of information, contribute to working memory performance. Furthermore it is widely accepted that offline processes during sleep also contributes to memory performance. In order to study if a cause-effect relationship exists between sleep and working memory performance, the present study was done. The experiment was conducted on a group of 40- working and non working women population, belonging to different cultural background and all of them belonging to the age group of 18 to 25, among which 20 were exposed to the sleep condition (experimental group) and other 20 were exposed to the wake condition (control group). The research design adopted the experimental between group designs. Purposive method of sampling was used to draw sample randomly to certain extent. The variables measured were sleep and wake condition, being independent variable and working memory performance, being the dependent variable. The data collected was statistically analyzed. Consistent with the previous studies, memory for word pairs reliably improved after sleep than after an equal period of wakefulness. Similarly, the results also indicated that performance in 2 back test was better after sleep than after a period of wakefulness. From the data analyzed, it was clear that the t was significant at 0.01 level, thereby indicating that there was an improvement in working memory performance after sleep than after an equal period of wakefulness, sug- gesting that the relationship is specific to change in working memory due to sleep.

Key Words: working memory, sleep condition, sleep condition, memory consolidation.

1 Student, M.Sc. Psychology, Montfort College, Bengaluru; 2Assistant Professor, Montfort College, Bengaluru.


Sherin Rose Mary1 & Anita Mary A 2


The aim of this study is to compare the perception of meaning in life among the young adults who abuse alcohol and those who do not use alcohol. The objective of the research is to administer meaning in life questionnaire to alcohol abusers and teetotalers and to compare their responses. The hypotheses formed was that alcohol abusers perception of meaning in life presence will be less when compared to teetotalers and alcohol abusers meaning in life search will be more when compared to teetotalers. Purposive sampling and snow balling was done and 40 samples were collected (20 alcoholics and 20 teetotalers). The tools used were meaning in life questionnaire. Data was analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). The findings showed that alcohol abusers meaning in life presence was less and meaning in life search was more when compared to teetotalers. Together which shows that alcohol abusers perception of meaning in life is less when compared to teetotalers.

Key Words: Meaning in Life, Alcohol abusers,Teetotalers

1Student, M.Sc. Psychology , Montfort College, Bengaluru;
2Assistant Professor , Montfort College, Bengaluru


Asmita Shukla1, Prangya Paramita Priyadarshini Das2 & Vineeta Patnaik3


Families in the 21st century have disintegrated into nuclear families owing to economic and and cultural ramifications forcing families to adopt systems of role reversals wherein the child takes on the role of a parent either in looking after the siblings when both parents are out at work or even serving as a confidante for the parent in the midst of a discord, soaking in the emotions of the parents. Research on parentification has led to identifying two types of parentification namely emotional and instrumental parentification. It has been proposed that instrumental parentification is less harmful to adolescents than emotional parentification. Using the parentification questionnaire, unstructured interview, a retrospective case study was conducted on five adolescents from a middle class, educated family with working parents. All the adolescents went through some kind of financial crisis and hence parental discord during that phase, resulted in emotional parentification. It was found that parentification as early as at the age of 10 has a profound impact on adjustment in late adolescence which led to disruptive/delinquent behaviour before individuation and psychological resilience occurred. Observation, official reports and self report of the case studies confirmed that three of the adolescent (boys) showed defiant and delinquent behaviour and two of them (girls) were found with emotional distress and seeking early romantic relationships. Communication loops and feedback loops in this study has resulted in the adolescents achieving resilience despite the impact of parentification .The study has implications for family therapy, Counsellors and Mental health profession- als.

Key Words: Parentification; adolescent adjustment; delinquent behaviour; psychological resilience

1Assistant Professor, School of Humanities and Social Sciences,IIT Bhubaneswar; 2Assistant Professor, P.G. Department of Psychology, Ravenshaw University, Cuttack & 3 Psychologist,IIT Bhubaneswar


Ruby John1, Anita Mary. A2 & Sritha Sandon 3


The research on judgment of facial expression aims at studying the effect of intensity of different facial expressions on the judgment of facial expressions. The hypothesis of the study states that "Intensity will positively influence the accuracy of judgment of facial expression. The study was conducted on 40 individuals who consisted of 20 males and 20 females, between the age group of 18 - 21 years, from the Urban Bangalore population. The subjects were shown a set of 48 photographs consisting of the six basic expressions of anger, sadness, happiness, fear, disgust and surprise at four different levels of intensities in a random order. The photographs contained both a male and a female depicting all the six major expressions at the four intensities. The subjects were then asked to identify the expressions seen on screen and their responses and reaction time were entered. The raw scores of the individuals were tabulated and then two one-way analyses of variance were carried out in order to test the significance of the hypothesis. One ANOVA aimed at analyzing the accuracy of responses across the intensities and the other aims at analyzing the reaction time across the intensities. The 'f' value obtained shows significance at 0.01 levels thus validating the alternative hypothesis which states that "Intensity will positively influence the accuracy of judgment of facial expressions." The results of the study can be applied in many psychological situations such as during family and marital counseling, in industrial and organizational set ups etc.

Key Words: Intensity, Judgment of Facial expressions, Young adults

1Student, M.Sc. Psychology, Montfort College, Bengaluru;
2Asst. Professor, Montfort College, Bengaluru
3Asst. Professor, Montfort College, Bengaluru


Manisha Chopda1 and Salome Divya Vijaykumar2


In dealing with clients and their problems, counselors are constantly on the receiving end of stress. Stress is a hindrance to an individual's personal and professional performance. In order to be an effective counselor, it is important that the professional develops a system of deriving personal benefits as he/she delivers professional benefits. Counselors have an obligation to maintain healthy psychological well-being. This study explores the means by which counselors handle the stresses arising from the clients' end. It is guided by a few research questions: 1. What are the common stressors with regard to their work? 2. What are the strategies which they use to channelize negative energy caused by these stressors? and 3.How do they perform when their personal problems merge/clash with a client's situation? The researchers will de- velop a semi-structured interview protocol and an open-ended questionnaire. Around 20 counselors would be interviewed or given the questionnaire based on their accessibility. The purposive sampling technique with inclusion criteria would be used. The data would be subject to content analysis. Themes will be identified through the data collected based on which the findings will be discussed. These findings will have implica- tions for the practice and training of counselors and a framework will be presented in this regard.

Key Words: Secondary trauma stress, counselor's stress, negative stressors, coping mechanisms, Professionalism

1Graduated in bachelors of psychology; University of Madras; 2Teaching cum Research fellow, Department of Psychology, University of Madras


Dr. Sudhamayi. P.,1 & Theclamma Joseph2


Spiritual Intelligence as the adaptive use of spiritual information to facilitate everyday problem solv- ing and goal attainment. It is a capacity to transcend the physical and material, the ability to experience heightened states of consciousness, the ability to sanctify everyday experience, the ability to utilize spiritual resources to solve problems, the capacity to be virtuous. Emotional Intelligence reflects one's ability to deal with daily environment challenges and helps predict one's success in life, including professional and personal pursuits. The present study aimed at Spiritual Intelligence and Emotional Intelligence among women. The major objective of the study is to assess the relationship between spiritual intelligence and Emotional Intelli- gence among women. Spiritual Intelligence Scale and MEII were administered to 100 women in Tamilnadu state. The results revealed that there is a positive relation between Spiritual Intelligence and Emotional Intel- ligence.

Key Words: Spiritual Intelligence, Emotional Intelligence, women

1 Assistant Professor, Montfort College, Bangalore; 2Student, II MLCU, Montfort College, Bangalore


Sritha Sandon1


Addiction to alcohol and other psycho-active substances is an enormous problem in India. While substance dependence itself has received a lot of research focus, there is far less significance given to co- dependency. Co-dependency is a learned behaviour that can be passed down from one generation to an- other. It is an emotional and behavioural condition that affects an individual's ability to have a healthy, mutually satisfying relationship. It is also known as "relationship addiction" because people with co-depen- dency often form or maintain relationships that are one-sided, emotionally destructive and/or abusive. While co-dependency can affect any relationship in which one person is substance-dependent, this study focuses on the female spouse (wife) of a male substance dependent (husband). The study aims at determining whether there is a correlation between perceived stress and codependency, whether perceived stress levels differ among those who suffer from codependency and those who do not and finally, whether coping styles differ among codependent and non-codependent women. The study only focuses of wives of alcoholics. The study is a mixed quantitative design incorporating both correlational and quasi-experimental methods. The findings are that coping styles as well as stress are predictors of codependency and explain about 64% of the variance in codependency. The results show that codependency exists among 71% of women of alcoholic husbands and about 34% of women whose husbands do not abuse any substance. The findings are that both stress levels and coping styles differ among codependent and non-codependent women.

Key Words: codependency, stress, coping

1 Assistant Professor, Montfort College, Bangalore


Suman O1 & Ann Treesa Rafi2


Teachers have a high impact on the lives of many students and thus it is important that they have a balance between family life and work life .The aim is to study the impact of marital status on worklife balance among teaching professional at Undergraduate level. For the study purposive sampling technique was used. The sample size was 60 and the sample was younger population from UG level. Work life balance questionnaire designed by Fisher Mcauley was used to measure the work life balance. It was found that there was no significant difference in worklife balance for teaching professional across the marital status.

Key Words: worklife balance, marital status.

1 Student of MSc. Psychology, Montfort College, Bangalore; 2 Assistant Professor at Montfort College, Bangalore.


Maxim Pereira1, Visalakshi Sridhar2 & Tanusree Christina Durairaj3


The concept of counselling as advice and guidance can be dated to ancient times in India. Even though, counselling practice is as old as Psychology in India, professional counselling practice and training at a post-graduate level is gaining prominence in recent times. The literature also speaks of the lack of awareness of counselling among people and the stigma towards counselling. Moreover, there seems to be multiple connotations to counselling both among professionals and people at large leading to much confusion about the understanding of the term. In this backdrop, the authors wanted to explore if people are aware of counselling, what they mean by counselling , whether they are open to seek counselling or not, and their reasons for the same. The authors sought answers from 118 people from various walks of life, for the above questions. This paper discusses both the qualitative and quantitative data.

Key Words: counselling, counsellor, meaning of counselling

Assistant Professors at Montfort College, Bengaluru and are Ph.D Scholars at Bharathiar University, Coimbatore. 3M.Sc. (Psychological Counselling) student at Montfort College. Email: mmaximp@gmail.com visal.sr@gmail.com & christina.durairaj@yahoo.com


Arjun Chand CP1 & Shrilata 2


Ayurveda, the complete science of life is the first health science in India to mention Psychotherapy (Satvavajaya chikitsa) as a (one out of three treatment methods) separate treatment method. The science has mentioned the importance of existence of psychotherapy and psychotherapist. Family problems are the fast growing issue in the current society. Premarital counseling and post marital counseling have become an essential part of the society to prevent the same. Attitudes, ignorance, incomprehension, egotism, issues in adjustments are the major reasons elicit here. Satvavajaya chikitsa prominently highlights the need of con- trolling the negative emotions and indriya (senses) in preventive as well as curative aspects. The problems are originated due to the improper application of chittavrtti (psychological function) like Viparyaya (false concepts),Vikalpa (imaginations) and Smrti (memory) which can be treated with the proper application of chittavrtti like Pramana(facts), vikalpa, nidra (Sleep) and smrti. Pancha klesha (five anguishes) mentioned in Pathanjali yoga sutra should also be considered here as a reason as well as a precipitating factor. Identifying the exact psychopathology is important for a psychotherapist to apply the Satvavajaya chikitsa. Applicability of Satvavajaya chikitsa is based on Dhee (intellect), Dhairya (motivation) and Atmaadi jnana (Knowledge about self etc) according to the need. Satvavajaya promotes the normal major functions of mind (Control senses and control mind) through guiding chintyadi artha (objects of mind). Increase of Rajas and Tamas guna (Satva, Rajas and Tamas are basic functional faculties of Mind) is observed in such family issues. So Satvavajaya tries to improve satva (the positive functional faculty) and reduce the rajas and tamas (the negative functional faculties) to maintain the equilibrium of all three. This paper discusses the applicability of each method in various areas of family issues.

Key Words: Ayurvedic, Psychotherapy, Family Counselling

1 Final year PG scholar, Dpt. of Manasaroga, SDM College of Ayurveda, Hassan; 2 First year PG Scholar, Dpt. of Manasaroga, SDM College of Ayurveda, Hassan


Ann Treesa Rafi1


Cognitive Analytic Therapy (CAT) is a new psychotherapy model that was formalised by Anthony Ryle in 1984. In India it was introduced in 2011 and the Indian Association for CAT is being established in Bangalore. CAT provides a therapy model that views the self as both socially formed and also a part of the social environment. Its prime focus is on relationships and viewing the individual-in-the-context. This paper outlines the progress of a client, who meets the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) that included unstable intense personal relationships, frantic efforts to avoid abandonment, impulsivity. It elucidates the application of the BPD model of CAT by identifying reciprocal roles, procedural sequences and mapping exits over a 16-session CAT. By the end of therapy, the client was more accepting of himself and also displayed greater self-awareness. The paper also highlights the changing client-therapist relationship over the course of therapy.

Key Words: personality disorder, psychotherapy

1 Assistant Professor, Sampurna Institute of Advanced Studies. Bangalore- 38, email: ann.treesa.rafi@gmail.com


Caroline Gauri Bosco1 & Priti Sirkeck2


There are several causes to chronic back pain and one of the most common of these factors is disc prolapse, specifically lumbar intervertebral disc prolapse. Studies have been conducted on the disability resulting from slipped disc and on the same lines; several scales have been used to measure the pain, disability and coping. Disability is reflected in the patient's personal and professional life, both. With the change in lifestyle today, the prevalence and incidence of disc herniation not only in India, but also globally, have been on the rise. The study aimed at measuring and studying pain severity, interference and disability among patients with herniated discs and studying the relationship between the three. A quantitative approach to the study was used. The Brief Pain Inventory and Oswestry Disability Index were administered in the same order to a target population of 30 people at least. Using the scores obtained and the inventory manuals, the results were analysed and interpreted accordingly to obtain the desired evidence for the hypothesis. The results of the study show a significant relationship between the subjects' BPI and ODI scores at the 0.01 level. The Pearson's Product Moment Correlation coefficient is .704 which denotes a highly dependable relationship between the variables under study. High levels of pain severity, interference and disability were also found. Implications of the study can be used to plan Cognitive Behavioural interventions in cases of perceived disability, counselling patients and forming economic policies regarding claiming disability ben- efits.

Key Words: distress, disability, herniated discs

1 Caroline Gauri Bosco, 2 Priti Sirkeck,


Vasantha., M1 & Ann Treesa Rafi2


In India, there is a strong social stigma attached to sexual abuse. Delayed-disclosure or non-disclo- sure of sexual abuse is a common outcome due to social stigma and victim-blame associated with sexual abuse. Sexual abuse has a long lasting impact on victims -- both physically and psychologically. The earlier the abuse is identified, the faster the victim will be able to cope with the trauma, thereby helping with the process of recovery. This study presents how disclosure of sexual abuse is a challenge specifically in the Indian society. And further explores the possible ways to overcome these challenges in counselling. The method used to conduct this study is qualitative focus group discussion. The focus group discussion con- sists of seven participants a survivor of sexual abuse, counsellor, child counsellor, psychiatric, lawyer, and a parent - all are closely associated to this field of study in Bangalore. The results highlight the barriers to disclosure that exist at the societal, family and personal level. Counsellor should guard best interest of the client and work towards removing the victim attitude in the client, a non-threatening environment in counsel- ling encourages disclosure, multicultural considerations must be made while working with survivors.This study will create awareness among counsellors and therapists and help to validate multicultural counselling models and techniques that could be helpful in breaking the silence of abuse.

Key Words: Sexual abuse, Challenges in counselling, Indian context

1 Vasantha. M and, Student, Counselling Psychology, SAIS,Montfort College, Bangalore, vasantha.maruthy@gmail.com;
2 Ann Treesa Rafi, Assistant Professor, Sampurna Institute of Advanced Studies. Bangalore- 38. ann.treesa.rafi@gmail.com


Aruna Armugam


Every person with Parkinson's Disease (PD) is different - not only in how he or she is affected by the disease, but also in h1ow he or she reacts to the life changes that are associated with it. Parkinson's disease is a slowly progressive disorder that affects movement, muscle control and balance. Parkinson's disease is usually idiopathic, which means that the cause is unknown. When the symptoms occur secondary to a known cause, it is called as Parkinsonism. Parkinson's disease is one of the most important diseases affecting movement in people over age 55. Though it is chronic and progressive, proper treatment makes it possible to lead a fulfilling and productive life. Depression has been estimated to affect 1 in 3 individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) and can lead to worse health outcomes and decreased quality of life. Anxiety further complicates PD outcomes. Pharmacologic treatments of depression and anxiety can have negative side effects in patients with PD, including exacerbation of PD symptoms. Cognitive behavioural approaches are known to be effective for depression generally, but only a handful of studies have examined the role of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy of patients with depression in PD.

Key Words: Parkinson's Disease, Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, Depression

1 Assistant Professor, Montfort College, Bangalore


Dr. Vanaja A Nair1 & Dr. Tony S. George2


The purpose of this study was to explore the urban clients' experiences with their therapists in the Indian sub-continent. A Consensual Qualitative Research was used with a semi-structured interview to gather data from 20 participants (6 male and 14 female) in Bangalore and Mumbai, of ages varying from 18 to 70. From the themes that emerged in this analysis, the data pertinent to Indian clients' experiences of cultural factors that influenced alliance are presented here. Some helpful experiences are: attentiveness to narrative, emotional validation, 'guru' transference and equity in the relationship. Some hindering experiences are therapists interrupting clients' story, neglecting emotions, hierarchy and rare feedback mechanism. Cul- tural memberships of therapist and client (gender, age, religion, region and class) influenced the alliance. These findings are discussed in relation to the Indian worldview and the implications for research and practice are provided.

Key Words: psychotherapy research in India, 'guru' transference, counter-transference, hierarchy and rare feedback mechanism.

1 Counseling Psychologist / Facilitator, Tranquil Spaces, Bangalore
2 Christ University, Bangalore, India


Zoengpari1 & Lalremruati. C2


The epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is in its third decade and has reached to alarming proportions worldwide. In 2013, there were 35 million [33.2 million-37.2 million] people living with HIV. India has the third highest number of people living with HIV in the world and the estimated number of people living with HIV was 2.1 million at the end of 2013, (UNAIDS, 2014). The VCT is the universal counseling strategy for HIV/AIDS and has been found to be quite effective. However, additional research is needed to assess how to streamline but keep essential ele- ments of pre- and post-test counseling (Jurgens, 2007a; Chersich and Temmerman, 2008). The main objectives of HIV/AIDS counseling are to provide psycho-social support, to prevent transmission of HIV infection, to improve quality of life of HIV infected people and to provide risk assessment for people who are potentially at risk of contracting HIV infection. And as the International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights clarify, "The right to privacy encompasses obligations to respect physical privacy, including the obligation to seek informed consent to HIV testing and privacy of information, including the need to respect confidentiality of all information relating to a person's HIV status" (para. 119). In India the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) is "the nodal organization for formulation of policy and implementation of programs. The HIV/AIDS counseling strategy being implemented in India is Integrated Counseling and Testing (ICTC) formulated and modeled on the Universal Voluntary Counseling and Testing strategy (VCT). The VCT denotes any intervention that includes a minimum of pre- and post-test counseling which should include the clinical benefits and prevention benefits of testing, the right to refuse, follow-up services offered, and in case of positive result (partner) notification. Counseling in VCT is a confidential dialogue between a client and counselor aimed at enabling the person to cope with stress and make personal decisions related to HIV/AIDS. The counseling process includes an evaluation of the personal risk of HIV transmission and facilitation of preventive behavior (Voluntary counseling and testing technical update, UNAIDS, 2000).This paper aims to present a brief overview of the NACO HIV/AIDS counseling in India.

Key Words: HIV/AIDS, National AIDS control organization, counselling

1 Associate Professor, Dept. of Psychology & Faculty-In-Charge Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM), Round-7, Counseling Component. Mizoram University. Tanhril, Aizawl- 796001. Mizoram. zoengpari@gmail.com; 2Research Scholar, Department of Psychology, Mizoram University.


Jyothisa Mathew1, Aneesha Jose2 & Lopamudra Goswami3


The population under study is the LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) community. LGBT, a community that has gained tremendous popularity and support has certainly gained our attention. Increas- ingly, this population has been subjected to a lot of discrimination not just in their immediate society but also with respect to the law and media in India. The aim of the study is to explore the issues faced by the LGBT community. The issues that have been ventured into include (1) coming out, (2) their identity and (3) social support system.The study is qualitative in nature. The data for the study was collected using an in depth semi structured interview method. The data was analyzed using an Inductive Thematic Analysis approach. The sample is confined to a select few from the city of Bangalore belonging to the LGBT community. The data was collected using the purposive sampling technique with a sample size of five. The purpose of the study is to explore into these issues and the implications include increasing sensitivity to diverse populations in the area of counselling. There is a clear need to bring out their issues especially to counsellors in training or currently in practice, in order to be able to better cater to their needs.

Key Words: LGBT Community, Issues, Counselling

1,2 students of MSc. Psychology at Montfort College, Bangalore; 3Assistant Professor at Montfort College, Bangalore.


Jennie Mendes1 & Dr Neeta Mehta2


waiting upon their daughters. The family milieu has several players. Mothers are unwitting counsellors. They are the barefoot doctors who are healers. Hence counselling does occur in informal settings.Like all linkages mother-daughter bonds are nurtured by communication. A daughter needs a parent who is also an experi- enced adult advisor and not just a buddy.This paper analyses 26 episodes of a realistic Pakistani serial Zindagi Gulzar hai (2013). It is a narrative depicting ordinary lives of our times. It represents subject matter truth- fully without artificiality, and avoids any artistic convention that is exotic or supernatural. The themes in mother daughter protocols of these episodes were arrived at. The realism in this popular serial stimulates the viewer's imagination. It draws attention to the everyday conditions of life. This cinema therapy will send home insights, inspirations, access related events and help them to be consciously aware of the storylines which are reflections of themselves.

Key Words: Zindagi Gulzar hai, barefoot counselors, mother-daughter bonds, Cinema Therapy.

1 Associate professor in Psychology, Sophia College, Mumbai; 2 Associate professor in Psychology, KET's V. G. Vaze College, Mululnd, Mumbai


Niti shukla1


I reviewed the current trends in the practice of counseling psychology. When I revived the existing literature I found that in the current scenario the counselors were practicing these approaches depending on the need of the subject and the approaches are cognitive approach, behavioral approach, affective approach and a personal theory of counseling. if we observe all the approaches were dependent on the three aspects of personality viz., cognition, affection and conation (i.e. knowing, feeling and doing as given by the ancient philosophers).cognitive approach pioneered by christiani(1981)have pointed out that in cognitive approach the process aims to help clients to eliminate emotional disturbances by learning to think rationally ,to help them get rid of illogical, irrational ideas and substitute logical, rational ideas and attitudes. Affective ap- proaches focus on client centered approach of Rogers in which he emphasis that how much responsibility can be placed on client for his problem solving?. It focuses on what is going inside the individual and particularly what the individual is experiencing at the given time. Behavioral approach focuses on overt behavior which is observable also focuses on specific behavior then they formulate the specific and objec- tive treatment to the problem at hand and in the end the objective assessment of the problem. Personal theory of counseling; earlier the counselor practice the above basic approaches but now the focuses shift on the need of the client and the counselor from here the personal theory of counseling emerges.

Key Words: Current trends therapies, counselling practices

1 Student, University of Delhi


Shangreila Sharma1 & Lalropuii Chawngthu2


Aim. To analyse and assess the need for a program of training and counselling for young seafarers in India. This concept paper reviews the guidelines issued by maritime regulators such International Labour Organisation (ILO), International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and Directorate General of Shipping, India (DGS) provided data on optimal and minimal guidelines of employment on board. The current conditions are explored by information from International Trader Workers Federation forum. Method. Review of relevant articles from journals was done to check the stressors currently faced by seafarers. Results of studies on psychological result of witnessing terrorism at high seas and long term psychosocial and physiological results were studied. Results. Stressors studied are grouped in different heading and impact of each is briefly described. Discussion. The researcher discusses the findings in the light of Indian context and her experi- ence. Conclusion. The study highlights the paucity of research in the field of lives of Indian seafarers. A future plan involving all concerned parties and researchers of psychology with appropriate knowledge in the field of shipping should be constituted, for a studying and creating specific programs designed for psycho- logical bolstering of seafarers at various stages of their careers.

Key Words: Seafarers, stress, counselling strategies, India.

1 Student, II MLCU, Montfort College, Bangalore.
2 Assistant Professor, Montfort College, Bangalore


Allen.J1 & Aruna Arumugam2


Background: Adolescence is the transitional age between childhood and adulthood. It is a time of discovery and disorientation. One of the characteristics of this age is high risk behavior which includes substance abuse. Provocative therapy is an unconventional psychotherapeutic model which uses reverse psychology and humor to provoke positive behavior. Aim: To help the adolescent who presented with the problem of Nicotine Dependence by using provocative therapy. Case presentation: Mr.TJ, 17 year old stu- dent sought counseling help because he wanted to quit smoking. The client was diagnosed with 305.1 Nicotine Dependence according to DSM IV. Management: For the first five sessions a cognitive behavioral approach was applied on the client. Provocative therapy was applied from the sixth session and lasted for another five sessions. In these sessions the client was encouraged to continue his self-destructive behavior and even take it further. The techniques of provocative therapy were used perceptively. Outcome: The client quit smoking. Discussion: Even though some of provocative therapy's principles and techniques go against some of the norms of psychotherapy, it is still very effective.

Key Words: Provocative therapy, substance dependence.

1 Student, Sampurna Institute of Advanced Studies, Montfort College, Bangalore;
2 Assistant Professor, Montfort College, Bangalore


Sabina Susan Samuel1 & Dr. Baiju Gopal2


The event of Suicide is one that has been studied and documented in several studies abroad and in India. But, to approach the event of Suicide from the perspective of the 'attempted' or 'survivor' is rare. The purpose of this research is to understand the meaning the act of suicide holds, emotions and thoughts, of the attempter, leading up to the suicidal decision and to trail them till the decision manifests into action. It would provide an in depth perspective of the experience of this event. The research attempts to find not only the meaning behind these events but to also put together a psychological profile by observing the common thoughts, emotions and meaning attributed to the attempt. The research will make use of the method of narratives, over a period of sessions, which would provide the life stories of the individual, as well as the event, in itself. The research is conducted on ten women participants in age range of 18 - 35 years. The participants are selected based on the criteria, specified. The research is qualitative in nature. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) is used to analyze and interpret the data collected. Data analysis shows that the psychological profile, of a suicide survivor consists of cognitions that are predominantly, restrictive and negative in nature, experience of negative emotions especially that are related to the traumatic events and suicide as a meaning fulfilling action. The research attempts to provide a profile which would not only help in understanding the meaning and life events of such an individual but would also help in training and changing the perspective that mental health professionals hold today.

Key Words: Suicide, psychological profile, emotions.



Arundhati Chaudhuri


Traditional Psychotherapy often overlooks the domain of Spirituality which can go a long way into healing of mental illness or distress. While common psychotherapeutic processes involve various models such as Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, Cognitive Therapy, Gestalt, Transactional analysis etc.- Spiritual practices involve meditation, creative visualization, working on chakras and creative arts to name a few. A process of "Psycho-Spiritual integration" begins to occur naturally when the ego and soul turn to focus upon one another. The perspective of Psycho-Spirituality can be used for understanding and treating a human being by merging the domains of mind, body, emotions and spirit. The task of Psycho-Spiritual integration is to transcend and accept the dualism of our lives which includes personality traits, the black and white areas of our soul, interpersonal relationships to aid in finally dissolving dualism, thus- helping it learn to live within the tension of the complementary opposites within its own nature. Quantum Healing works on the Principles of Quantum physics which states that 'Everything is Energy and Vibrations!' The objective of Psycho- Spirituality is to restore energy that is not in harmony, or correct energy blocks by creating quantum leaps of opportunity with the potential for significant and spontaneous healing without psychiatric interventions.

Key Words: Psycho-Spirituality, Quantum Physics, Quantum Healing, Transpersonal Self , Positive Psychology

1 Student, Montfort College, Bangalore


Deepa1 Mueza Hamid S2 & Ann Treesa Rafi3


According to a study conducted by the National Commission on Macroeconomics and Health in 2005, nearly 5% of India's population suffers from common mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety. However only less than one third of individuals who experience psychological distress seek help from a mental health professional (Andrews, Issakidis, & Carter, 2001). Kushner and Sher found that the thought of seeking help carries with it a negative perception, which may be perceived as worse than the problem. Ross (2013) stated that the stigma attached to seeking help, is a common reason why people don't seek help. In India, there have been moves from the part of the government to mandate it in schools and colleges. Also various agencies have been committed to increasing awareness among the public. These efforts have led to an increase in people seeking help, however there continues to be a huge treatment gap. The aim of the current study is to find out if there is stigma attached to counselling amongst undergraduate students in Bangalore. Bangalore being a cosmopolitan and individuals being exposed to different cultures through various media, the researchers are aiming at understanding whether stigma continues to be barrier in seeking help. The method used will be questionnaire method. The sample size will be 200, age group between 18-21, male and female. The results can be used by mental health professionals when working with individuals in the above age-group.

Key Words: Stigma, counselling

1, 2 Students, 3 Assistant Professor, Sampurna Institute of Advanced Studies., Bangalore


Siotia. S


Despite growing access to modern medicine, faith healing practices include a wide range of activi- ties like performing elaborate rituals, recommending amulets, suggestion for wearing specific rings, brand- ing with rods, chaining in temples, exorcism of jinn and ghosts, animal sacrifices and others. In this paper, faith healing practices are evaluated on the principles of ethics. The principle of autonomy, beneficence and non-malificience and justice are explored. The author has drawn inference that while some practices may be unacceptable and should be curtailed, the overall institution of faith healing might be useful for some people.

Key Words: Faith healing treatment; Ethics; Culture; India

1 Student, Indian Institute of Psychology and Research, Bangalore


Swathi S Prabhu


Culture is an integral part of an individual's personality, behaviour and social interactions with family as well as friends. Culture affects the expression of symptoms of schizophrenia. In Schizophrenia, Ex- pressed Emotions (EE) is a major cause of the maintenance of the disorder. Culture is considered a predeter- mining factor in family interactions, and there is cause to believe that it would influence components of expressed emotions such as levels of criticism and emotional over involvement. There are various family based and community based interventions to increase awareness among family members of patients of Schizophrenia. Studies on expressed emotion across different national and ethnic groups suggest that the sociocultural context may influence the family's emotional climate and levels of EE. There is thus cause to believe that this factor would influence the process of Family Therapy in Schizophrenia among male and female caregivers. The paper integrates various literatures based on how culture affects EE. This theoretical paper aims to understand and highlight how various cultural factors interfere with the therapy process due to the difference in cultural orientation among the caretaker in family therapy. The paper also tries to addition- ally explain how certain components of expressed emotions are embedded inherently in our functioning as a collectivistic society. Finally, the paper also addresses and advocates the need for these concerns to be taken into account in a therapeutic and counselling setting.

Key Words: Schizophrenia, Caretakers, Expressed Emotions, Family therapy, Cultural difference

1 Student,MSc Psychology, Indian Institute of Psychology and Research


Anoop Kumar K.V1 & Sasidharan, T2


Initiated by the Neo-Freudians who conceptualized it to be driven by "fear of impending death", the notion of Midlife crisis has led to the emergence of certain important theoretical constructs. Midlife has been referred to as the afternoon of life by Jung (1933) in his essay, "The Stages of Life". He points to the mental confusions that can occur in an individual's mind at this time period of life, describing it as a key to the process of self-awareness and self-actualization, leading to individuation. Erikson (1963) held that people in middle- adulthood undergo a struggle to find new meaning and purpose to their own lives. First coined by Psychologist Elliot Jacques (1965) in an article entitled, "Death and midlife Crisis" it was theorized that the "Midlife crisis" was driven by a fear of impending death. Levinson (1969) proposed the Stage-Crisis view that deals with an individual's personality development. Accordingly in the middle adulthood the person must come to terms with following four major conflicts: being young versus old, being masculine versus femi- nine, being destructive versus constructive and being attracted to others versus being separated. The con- cept of Mid-Life Crisis has received enormous attention in popular culture and literature but in the arena of serious academic psychological research and application it has not lived up to that expectation. This paper aims at analyzing the existing theoretical constructs to transform the understandings into practical goals for counselling and psychotherapy.

Key Words: Middle Adulthood, Hibernation, Midlife Crisis

1 Ph.D Scholar, 2Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Calicut.


Dr. Bhasi Sukumaran


Key Words:

Consultant Clinical Psychologist, Psychological Solutions and Initiatives, Chennai



Culture is an integral part of an individual's personality, behaviour and social interactions with family as well as friends. Culture affects the expression of symptoms of schizophrenia. In Schizophrenia, Ex- pressed Emotions (EE) is a major cause of the maintenance of the disorder. Culture is considered a predeter- mining factor in family interactions, and there is cause to believe that it would influence components of expressed emotions such as levels of criticism and emotional over involvement. There are various family based and community based interventions to increase awareness among family members of patients of Schizophrenia. Studies on expressed emotion across different national and ethnic groups suggest that the sociocultural context may influence the family's emotional climate and levels of EE. There is thus cause to believe that this factor would influence the process of Family Therapy in Schizophrenia among male and female caregivers. The paper integrates various literatures based on how culture affects EE. This theoretical paper aims to understand and highlight how various cultural factors interfere with the therapy process due to the difference in cultural orientation among the caretaker in family therapy. The paper also tries to addition- ally explain how certain components of expressed emotions are embedded inherently in our functioning as a collectivistic society. Finally, the paper also addresses and advocates the need for these concerns to be taken into account in a therapeutic and counselling setting.

Key Words: Schizophrenia, Caretakers, Expressed Emotions, Family therapy, Cultural difference

1 Student,MSc Psychology, Indian Institute of Psychology and Research


Anoop Kumar K.V1 & Sasidharan, T2


Initiated by the Neo-Freudians who conceptualized it to be driven by "fear of impending death", the notion of Midlife crisis has led to the emergence of certain important theoretical constructs. Midlife has been referred to as the afternoon of life by Jung (1933) in his essay, "The Stages of Life". He points to the mental confusions that can occur in an individual's mind at this time period of life, describing it as a key to the process of self-awareness and self-actualization, leading to individuation. Erikson (1963) held that people in middle- adulthood undergo a struggle to find new meaning and purpose to their own lives. First coined by Psychologist Elliot Jacques (1965) in an article entitled, "Death and midlife Crisis" it was theorized that the "Midlife crisis" was driven by a fear of impending death. Levinson (1969) proposed the Stage-Crisis view that deals with an individual's personality development. Accordingly in the middle adulthood the person must come to terms with following four major conflicts: being young versus old, being masculine versus femi- nine, being destructive versus constructive and being attracted to others versus being separated. The con- cept of Mid-Life Crisis has received enormous attention in popular culture and literature but in the arena of serious academic psychological research and application it has not lived up to that expectation. This paper aims at analyzing the existing theoretical constructs to transform the understandings into practical goals for counselling and psychotherapy.

Key Words: Middle Adulthood, Hibernation, Midlife Crisis

1 Ph.D Scholar, 2Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Calicut.


Dr. Bhasi Sukumaran


Key Words:

Consultant Clinical Psychologist, Psychological Solutions and Initiatives, Chennai


Lubin A. Lukas1 & Johnson Alex2


The internet as a mode of delivery for psychotherapy has been a topic of debate ever since its inception over twenty years ago. The initial reactions were mostly negative. Many researchers believed that the distant and impersonal format inherently lacked the non-specific factors that played a key role in the outcome of therapy. A number of therapists voiced concerns regarding ethical and legal problems that it would entail. Some were concerned with issues relating to training of online therapists, reliance on fragile technology and worries relating to the digital divide. However, with an increasing number of studies indicat- ing that internet delivery therapies yield comparable results to face-to-face therapy for a number of disorders (such as panic disorder, agoraphobia, post traumatic stress symptoms, depression, social phobia and areas in health psychology), internet based therapy is currently emerging as viable therapeutic option, making therapy at once more cost effective and more accessible, especially for hard-to-reach patient populations. This paper examines some of the existing research on internet delivered therapy as well as its applicability in India. It also touches on the topic of suicide, with specific emphasis on the growing incidence of suicide among those below the age of thirty, in India, and discusses the use of self-help, web based interventions at the university level as a possible resource. An ongoing study in Manipal University is discussed briefly in this regard, in which a prototypical web based mindfulness intervention is being offered to young adults who exhibit psychological vulnerability to suicide.

Key Words: Internet therapy, non-specific factors, suicide, mindfulness

1&2 II M.Phil. Trainees, School of Allied Health Sciences, Manipal University


Deepa Bhatted1 & Dr. Bhasi Sukumaran2


Subject AI came I with complaints that his childhood memories are troubling him had increased. Since joining work the intensity and the frequency of childhood memories tormenting him. He was the youngest and has two older sisters. As a child he was physically abused by his father and his mother also supported his father. EMDR therapy was used to treat the PTSD symptoms experienced by AI. The eight- step procedure was followed and resource building was a part of the same. Safe place and container were installed. His negative cognition was that "I am not important or valuable as a person" was processed and changed to "I am important and valuable as a person." Along with EMDR, strategies were taught to improve his socialising skills. Exercises were given that were carried out at his work place. By the end of the eleventh session, he was able to handle the memories of his past if any surfaced. Memories of his childhood did not traumatised him, his performance at work improved and he was socialising with his peers and boss.

Key Words: Emdrin, Physical abuse, Childhood, Socialising.

1Consultant Psychologist, 2Consultant Clinical Psychologist, Psychological Solutions and Initiatives, Chennai